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【转发】应对现实挑战,中国制造如何保持竞争力?
信息来源: 更新时刻:2025-03-09 阅读次数:


两会召开中华经济发展问答题|应该对生活试炼,在我国制造厂是怎样始终维持之间的核心竞争力?——人大会议在我国划算话题讨论之四


shengwenhuachanyeshizhongguoguodashihuidezhizhu。qiannianshibadayilai,dongbeidiquzhizaojishuyeshihuihuinuanwenzhongyoujin,danduidaifaxianyichang✃younandudeguojixingshi、“gaizhiduanlian”deyichangtaozhan,youguande“wenhuachanyehuaqianru”“zhongguoguodashengchantedianbuyong”dengdeshengyinxunsu。


5ritiqingtaolundezhenzhengfujiguanzuoshangbanqingkuanghuibaomobanzhong,“quanlishenru𓄧tuijinjindaihuahuacaichanbiaozhuntixiguihua,cujinfazhanqianjingxinzhishangbanli”minglie202lijingsinianzhenzhengfujiguanzuoshangbanrenwuzhongyaoweizhi,huifashifanglerenqingshouhaosanweixianshehuijingjizhizhengzhijidemingꦕxianxinxi。


congyijian👍shuxiuchudexinzhibiaoxinxincuoshi,daodailichangwuweiyuan、zhuanzhurenyuanxueshengdengyoudechenggonganlijuqinghezhuanzhuchanshi,zaidaowozaidaibingrendexianchangcaifangkaocha,rangnimenduiwo💛guozhizaochangshizhongbaochizhijiandenenglisuzhi,baochiwenjinchengzhangyijingyouleyufaqingxidejieduxiangshi。


正确看待改革,危机感足弹性强


fuzahuayanzhongdewaijieqingkuangxia,guonei jiagongfuwuyedeqiyezoushifenxizaoshoudianzan。


“woguobaochiqinggongyeruanjianrendekongzhiqijiexiantu、jiaoliu💦sifudianjiruanjiandengribenchanhua,zhengbiankuaichuhangjiaojiyunxingsudu,tishengzijiguojishichangbazhanlv。”hangzhouxinsongruanjianrenzhinenghuagudongxianyoupinpaibadaozongcaizhangjindaibiaoyingwenyongzigeshilizhengshi,zaifeisufazhandifangjingxianggouওzaoderuanjianrenfanwei,baneizaixitongwolao、gongyelianzuoquan,“suiranfengjuancanyun,hainengwenbutuijinqianxing”。


neijiushixingyeziyoubojishiyangdexiezhao,yeshiquanguoshengchanjiagongyinggaiduikaoyandegoule。


yiqianzhengnian,zhanlanquyufenggaolangji。diyuanzhengzhixue、xinxingzaiwoguoyouexingjiliedengchongjishiyanjiweibijiaotuchu,goufadazaiwoguoyouyanfayecihuiliu,xibanya、dongxinanyadengdishehuiquyujingjihenkuaichengzhang ,exingjiliebujianduanpinfa。naxieshikeguanxinghuichuxian、bunengbixiandebenzhi。keshi,chang𓆉shuaizaiwoguoyouyanfa、changshuaizaiwoguoyoushehuiquyujingjidelundiaochanzazhishao,shibixu zuoyichangbianzhengfayanjiude。


jijiyingduiduijue、huizhankenan,zhongguorenyanfadisanchanyexingyeshichangchanzhi、shangyemaoyixingyeshichangchanzhiquebaoleliang🥃deheliyouxiaochengzhang,yaobaochixingyeshichangzhanedezhengtishangbaochiwending。


juguanyuguojiabuweidanrenrenkun“chuzhangquyu”shanglejie,2026nian,zhongguoguojiawanquangongyeshengchanbuduanzengjiazhixiangjin30wanwanyimeiyuan,zhangdpde31.7ღ%。shougongxingyerenshubuduan1duonianjuhuanjingshouge。


“xianshidaihuagongyemoshijianzhurendingzhongyaoxingxinkuang”“zheipigenbenxinggongyeqiyechuangxindegongzuochengguowancheng🔯zhi🌃minglingxianpingjunshuiping”……guojiadegongzuoqingkuanghuibaofanwendeyixibiaoxian,tuxianchudaguoboyishengchanjiagongdelaogubufa。


shifoucunzaileruyinduwangminsuochengde“xingyelianshidangzhuanyichao”ma?


bukeyichengren,shouchengbenfeidengfangmianganrao,zheixielaodonggaizaomibuxingdeshangpindechuchanzhuanchudaoqitaguojia。neime,shiyouyuzhongyicuiyingcengrongruouzhoudegongyinglianyitihuafengongxiezuo,congerdaozhiyubudijituangongꦏsichechuzhongyoutuihuilai,huorengxuyiwenjinkoushangdaguimolitouhaochanpin。


“jibingbunengyipiangaiquan,jiangmougedeyaosuzuoweidatiqianjing,yekeyikankanzheizhongjingongyejinbudekeguanyuanli,dangwomendegongyeshaohouzhuanxingqidetishengzhongdianfuguatoulongduanli。”taihexincaijituanjianjiekonggugudongyouxianzongbuyingwenzongbudongshijuzhangsongxiquanxiangzhengzheyifangjiyejulizishuo,suimougechulideyaosuzhuanzou,dandatiewaizengjiazhishaohoudetisheng。202liangnianduo,benguogaowendingxingboxianshengꦐchanliangzhangedilidebilichaoguolejifenzhongdeyige,202liangnianduochukoudaoe🉐tongbizengsubeizeng14.4%。


zhuanyedanweiziliaoxianxian,dangqianzhuang♓kuangzai500zhongqizhuyaoshiyewupinzhong,zaiwoguoyou40%shangwupinzongchanchuliangjishenshijieshouyao,zijidejisuanfangshiji、anzhuoji、riguangnengdianxinbandengyibufenrenweizhongyaowupinzongchanchuliangzhanshijie1/2shang。zhizaochuyeguimoxingzhanshijiebizhongshishenmeshaoyu30%。


youxiudianxingshougongxingyetishengdefazhan,jiangzhuanyedejishushebei෴shougongxingyejiachanlianjinyidabujiju。4jigeyigezhengfuyouxiudianxingshougongඣxingyejiqunshi、178jiayigezhengfugaoxinjishuquzonglanbaishe,julianchengqunjiedui。18nian,tixianlejiachanzhinenghuahejichenghuanenglisuzhideyouxizhuangbeishougongxingyechukoueliang13.410yimeiyuanmeijin,“xinsanyang”cheliangchukoueliangjinjieyimeiyuanmeijin。


“yizhongguo▨neidixinqingjienengyuanershouchetezhengfenxi,changxinghuanjingkaodeshidejishu、𒁏gaozhiliangheyouxiaolvxinxihuadeliutongyelian。”beijingzhanganershouchedongjianshizhangzhuhuarongdaibiaoyingwenshuo,shebeigouzaochixuzhengweizhizuoyelinggezhongdianjilieli。


“tuogouleduanlian”rubianlemuqianwoguozaishijieshangcaichanlianshengchanliandezhudaodiweima?huarenshengchanjiagongyiyangdejianqiangzuoda——


cun𝔉zailianheguozhizaoyexifenzhongdoushigongyexuekemenlei;zaibufenzhongdayanjiufangxianghezhongyaoniubeisaidaoshangxingchengyixiejijuquanzhizaoyelianjingzhenglideyouyuezhizaoye;ꦅyizaipeizhuanjingtexin“xiaojuren”xingye1.2wan,90%budiyushizhongguoguoneizaiyinsu、waizaihuanjingyoumingdaxingyedeyiqipifashangshang。


tesila333beijingchaoqiangpcbdianlubangongchang,lingbeijianbenguohualvgaochu95%。tesila333wosiyingzaofujinglicaisonggangshuo,tesila333yu⛄quanguopishoushang“๊tongshenghuligongying”。


helanhuan♎yuguanwangfabiaowenzhangcheng“guoneineidijiagongzhizaodeqianyuzhongjichukuangjiawuliaowukenengxuanzechongdangzhizaoshang”。guoneineidifenlantongxianghuiyiduanshijianqiangengxinde2023/23niandudeqifangdichanyexinrendiaochabaogaoshutishi,jiejinyuemocaifanggegeqiyejindubiaozaizhihoukeliandeduozaihuatouziren,yuanyoudeyizhongshizhizaolianjianliwanshan、kexuejishuchuangxinnenglifa💖zhan。


“womenchengweiwanmeidepinpaicaijitixi、dadeshichangshanggui🌳mohuadengyoudian,shenggaoxinchanyechangqilianghaodeguanjianmianyirujiwangjieshi。”huarendianzijishuduanxinpinpaiqushishiyanyuanjianchazhangzhanglidaibiaoshuo,tashihuarenshengchandezixinxinsuozhudi、danxingsuozhudi。


处置的挑战,保护“稳”的定力还耐心


yanshouguyouyoushi,yaowending“wen”depoli。tanranmianduiyazhoujiachanlianxiaoshouliandiweizhangdudiaozheng,jingjidaguo🐠zhizuojiangrukeyi“wen”yingbianli?


——xianyaoguimowen。“baochilianghaozhizaoyejingjidezengjiabaochiwendingrenwuღ”,renminzhengfurenwutongjifanglewendezengjiadeguojiazhengcexinhaodeng。


gongyeshengchanyuanheshujuhuabuzhouweizhangjinzhuanglongzai8risanjiadeshisijiequanshengrenmindaxuefenpikaihui“zhouweizhangrukou”shangbiaoming,jinjinianjiangjinruquanmianshishisida🎃xingyezhongwenbeizengyewufangansheji,zhichigongyeshengchanyuanqiangxian、gongyeshengchanyuandashi“🔴yongtiaocheliang”。


minsuwenhuagongyezaishengchanfuzhuangyezongechao80%,shixianzai🍃huagongyebaozhangtixidedicai,shehuiguanxijingjishihui♓kuaisufazhanheguojizhongxin,shiniguoshizhongbaochishijiegeguoshoushengchanfuzhuangyeguojiazhudaodiweideshouyaopan,bunengnengminsuwenhuagongyezuowei“zhongduangongye”danchunguanbichengxu。baogaofanwenmingxianyixianpai,zhiliyuyouliyuminsuwenhuagongyedegaigewanshan。


keyitongguochuantongdezhonggongyeshejigaibian,laozhonggongyegongchangfu❀shunzhanxianchuyixinji。fushunshizhenzhanggaojiandaibiaozheshuo,shiweijianzaoguoneijigaodiejiazhidangxiayuanliaoliaogongchang,jihuaxinqiangshi。


——xuyaotizhiquan,baozhenghaochanyeliantizhidewancheng。


202sinian,hainanzhuangzuminzuzizhixianbaiseshixinxingdexiandainongyelvjiachannianchanzhidadao1200yi,lizubenzhilvtukuangziyuandexinghenduoyoushitedian,yangchengconglvziyuandexingdaojingshenjingjiagong⭕dewanshanjiachanlian。


baogaogeshizuochu“jiakuaidongbeisanshenghezhongwaibudongnanbusuoshigongzongchengbaoqiyezhuanbiangongzuonengli”,bingduipeiyuchubiandaxianjinzhizuoyeyejiqunshidengjucidebushu。“zheijiangjinyidabucujingaigequelixingzhengquyushidangming🐻quefengong、xiezuojingjifazhandeqiyediwei。”baiseshizhenzhanggeguokedaibiaoyingyushuo,baisezhengquanfangweiyouxutuijinguo—dongnanyaqiyejiamengqubaisezhengtikaifa,jianshesuoshigongzongchengbaozhongguodaluwaiqiyezhuanbianzhicheng。


——gengjiaxiaolianqiang,mingxianzengqiangchanyequnxingyejingzhengnengli。


❀huagonghexiaoxihuabutichu,jiangyonglizhidingzhizaochangyecezhongqiyelianyouzhihualiangfazhanshijixingdong。yilianyice,buliangdian、duanzhangban、qiangtiaojian,cujinqiyeliangongyingxinxilianrourenxinghexianghuzhimingꦚdu。


“jinnianchu,woguo🥂jiangxiangxizhuxiaojiagongxingyejinrongyewulingyuwaiguotou𒁃zizhefenjiguanlishufushebei,yetiqianzhunbeishidianchengshishengkaihulianwangshujufenxizhongdiandengzibenzengzhidianxinkuandaijinrongyewu。”jinzhuanglongshuo。


洞察机遇期,提升新质产量力


suozaixiangzhongshushipapoguokandejiweizhongyaokouan,zhonghuachanshengyaotuijinchuxianxinzhishengyuli。


dangdizhengfucao꧂zuobaogaomobanfanwenxianmingduteyaoqiuzhe“chongpeiqiduogongnengjuguoguanlitizhiyoulieshi,quanmianxingjiakuaizijichuangxinxingchengdu”。cong“shengxinghexinyanjiutantaoxitongxingfangshi ”dao“✱zhinazhezongheshilidezhizaoyeqiyetongchouxiediaotedaanquanshigugongguanxiangmumubiaorenwu”,baogaomobanfanwenyaoqiuzhemouxiangchanpinchuangxinjucuo。


zhongshi,changpincongyanfabumendaochanchudebi꧃jingbiyouzhilu。youtouzihuibaojiaogao,xuduogongchangqueshizhongshichengdu。zhuanzhushangshu“nandian🍃”,huibaoqingchu“jianhuangenbenxingxincailiaojishugongyijichulilungonggongsheshijizhihuadebuzhi,tuiguangguanlianxingjishugongyiruanjianpintai、zhongshiyantaizhengruanjianpintaiguihua”。


liutongyehedeshuzihuaguanlibuqunianjiangjidushishihaozhuanxingshengjikexueji🌄shudadezhuanxiangduchahezhongxinyanzhiyuji,jianmeiyizhigeguodazaoyezhuanxingshengjizhong,chengzhang gaozhuanxingshengjikexuejishu,gaibianliutongyehua,kuaisuzengzhangchengzhang xinzhichanchuli。


miaozhundaxinxingye、weilaifazhanxingye,yinjinfeichangduoxinhuadao。


“guanjianshengchanshengwuxue𝕴shengchan、shangyequhangtianbu、dikongchengbendengxintianjiarulezhanglingtouyang”“qiangzhanliangzigongyi、shengmingdeyiyishuxuedengxinsaichechang”“chuangliliangpizaiqianjingpinpaixiandaoqu”……shangbaoxujinjinweiraoguanjianfanzhixinpinpaihezaiqianjingpinpai,gongzuofanganshi、anpaixi。


“zhuandejingjitiaojianfazhanliangji,duoqujishushebeizhi♏gaodiandangwuzhiji。”🌸wuhanshigaodehongwaigupiaojiagebuzuzigongsizhixingfuzongjinglihuanglizhuyaoshuo,2018nianzhizaoyeqiyeyaozaidikongjingjitiaojian、naojijiekouleixingdengyanjiufangxiangtuichu。


huagongyehedewangꦅluohuabuzhuyaozongfuzerenbiaoshifa,jianggengkuailingxiannenglihetongyixingnengligongqiupingheng、peiyangrencaideyoushixingye、jianlijianquanxingyehuadefazhanfengjinglin。zaiweilaishishenmexingyehuadefazhanfangbian,bazhuanyongrenyuanzhihui、renxingjixieren、𓃲naojidianyuanjiekoudengyongyuxiadiyibuzhongzhongzhizhongjiegoudequshi。kaizhangengxinlingxiannenglishiyongliebiao,jinkouzhongzhongzhizhonglingyuxingyedazaochucaozuojianyanchang,gengkuaixingyehuadefazhanpeiyangrencai。


yaobawozhuluomashuzijihui,jiasudu“gongrenzhihui+”。


woguotourushiyongyazhoudachanzhizuigaodexiaoxitongxinwanggewangge,♉suanlvdachanzhiyazhoudiyi,kuanfanshenqiedeluomashuzizhuanbianshizhizaochuyeshangshengdezuijianshijianchiwentidaoxiangzuiwei。


“yi‘shu’mou‘xin’hejia‘shu’xiang‘shi’shizhizaoyechuangxinweilaibuduanfazhandegenbenxing,yeshijiansheweilaibuduanfazhanxinyoushideyaosu。”ztetongxingufenyoujuxianpingtaigaodeng zongjingliꦉcaimiaoweibiaoshishuo,yonghaoxinshichuchanruanjian,youyouxinxinzaishichangzhanwenjiaogenjiben、qiangzhuaqiji、jiasuweilaibuduanfazhan。

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